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The future and success of America is not in this Constitution, but in the laws of God upon which this Constitution is founded. “ — James Madison (1751-1836) Father of the Constitution, 4th President of the U. S. `

There are a lot of lots in this world. There are lots to sell cars, lots to make movies, lots at the auction house, it takes a LOT OF Birds to down a jet pne, there are lots in life (some people say), people draw lots to see who will perform some task, lots of recalls of lots of food, a standard lots are the equivalent of 100,000 units of the base currency in a Forex trade, there are food safety lots, culled performance lots, Military lots, clothing lots, and even sand lots, and there is a lot number on you box of ammunition, cases, bullets, powder and even your primers but the big question is which lot helps you when you are reloading for a long range target match. The answer is the one on the food you eat may be the most important. Yes because the food manufacturer can find a tainted ingredient and by lot number(s) tell which lots contain the ingredient and recall them defect and recall that lot before you get to ill to function in a match. There is a different kind of lots when dealing with ammunition components. For a factory sponsored marksman a CULLED LOT. For the example of CULLED LOT I chose the Integrated Circuit (IC) because it shows how meaningless a lot is to performance and yet can broduce the highest performance parts for tose who are willing to pay. I was a Control Systems Engineer in the Guidance and Control Group group who designed, engineered built and programmed the guidance system for the LEM the Apollo Lunar Landing Vehicle that ferried two astronauts from the Command Module orbiting the moon down to the lunar surface and back to the Command Module for the return home. Because of a talent for tuning some of the executives cars (I thought I always wanted to be a HP engine mechanic and not an engineer) but the Lord had different ways of givings me what I wanted I was assigned to the research first on Ford Motor’ computerized diagnostic system where I got my first patent, my own back lot building, three techs and three brand new Ford cars to play with for a couple of years. As I finished the data for het design group I was given an engine dynamometer test cell complete with a full time operator and a programmer who was a real genius with our propriatary computer we used in most of our products at the timeproviding me with printouts of data analyzed by my software requirements the same day. What we accomplished was the ability with one probe detecting the time between the flywheel ring gear teeth measure the relative acceleration, torque and Jerk of every cylinder and its relationship to every other cylinder. I admit most of my thoughts were using this method on a computer controlled race engine but I drifted off before there was a computer that weighed less than a few tons that could keep up with a high rpm engine. The little computer we had at 8MHz was barely able to keep up with the 2300 RPM Diesels of the mid 1970s. After returned from an assignment in England. While the patents were mine as was the research the engineers and scientist I had sitting next to me in the G & C group knew not what I was up to (engine diagnostically speaking) they could make simple some of the complex problems that would arise because unlike me they were isolated from the problem and the intelligence to suggest a simpler way to approach the problem that is not always easy to see when you are too involved in the details. It was wonderful that after working in other divisions of the corporation and other corporations my last contract was sitting back in old seat in the Control group I started with . The only difference was the amount of money involved and the secretaries would give me pens and paper when I needed it. Nothing that was ever done for the staff or job shoppers doing the same thing but not with a contract from legal and the ability to do most of my work at home. I visited TI and was shown how one single silicone crystal about 0.050 inches thick and 2 or so inches in diameter woudl be made in one continuous process turn this one item into a thousand Integrated circuits and although every step of the manufactuting process was done to each of the little ICsone inat the same time this little piece of silicone would contain several lots.round wafers and through a series of layers being built on the wafer in a cycle of a coating of light sensitive emulsion followed by a beam of light energy projected through a pattern fixing that pattern to that layer. This cycle continues until all the resistors, capacitors, transistors, etc. are deposited on every IC on the wafer. When the wafer (see picture of my souvenir) on the left. in such a precise manner then after all the patterns were projected onto the light sensitive emulsion the disk there were somewhere like 1000 with a slice of a perfectly grown silicone crystal cut into a wafer about 2 inches in diameter and my guess would be about 0.050 thick. S lets stick to just one of these wafers. This wafer amplifier IC waferHere are many IC lots with about 1,000 IC on it All the thousand or so ICs on the final ready for testing wafer have the same lot number since the photo sensitise layers we all performed in the proper order on every IC as each layer of the circuits were photographically done with the same same light, the same intensity, and maybe the same photographer. Now enters the computerized tester that actually runs testing of every parameter of the customers specification. The testing computer stores the performance of each IC and its location on the wafer. Now the individual chips proceed down to be mounted in the little packages that can be handled by human assemblers of the printed circuit boards they are destined to be soldered into. So what did that computer test do before releasing them to be packaged in the little 4, 8, 10 or more legged packages. The little chips were segregated into different classes by their test scores. The A chips with the best of all performance go to the military via the military hardware suppliers. The B chips go to the electronic supply houses that supply the non-military TVs, Radios, and today just about everything we buy. Then there are the C chips, They fill the shelves of the retail electronic places. Lafayette and Radio Shack used to be two of the big ones. I think the D IC went to the Electrical Engineering Colleges as tax right offs. I never got one that didn't blow up. Maybe that is why I became a system engineer. Let the college students who buy the books and study due the designs of my conceived hardware. Let the thinkers who could pick up what they wanted in the class to be on the deans list the last two years. Finally got to be in the interesting part of an engineering studies. Now back to the little guys in their little caterpillar suits. So why did they give me the wafer in the picture. Simple, the computer testing on the wafer said it was not worth the labor to harvest any IC from it. Now for a little statistics of what happened to my wafer. Statistics uses the equasion lot. But they all have one common root. That common root is a cya root. The fact that you can tell what every part of a product is you cna isolate the smallest lot where the defective or contaminated component came in and thus reduce the size of the recall. The IC Maker Some where around fifty years ago I was invited by a big IC company to tour their facilities in Texas. One of their product was a an amplifier chip which I was one of the thousands of engineers who used it in their designs. cproduced the Ics I was using in one of my designs. It was like a sifi movie. Engineers and techs covered in white with masks and booties covering their shoes. To enter the place you had to walk through two doors and between the doors you received a complete air shower and put on your white bunny suit so you could enter the rook where you could see the operatiomn through a thick glass window. Inside thatroom were the thin silicone crystal wafers traqnsformed into the Integrated circuits we see today in their little gray catapiller packages into wich they went a long way and days down the process. The wafers were covered in alight sensetive slime and placed under an esxtreemly accurate projector which laid out "photographically" the millions of transistor, diodes and resistors into this wafer. This processwas repeated as many times as the specific IC design required.Finally it wasin a special oven and cured with thousands of brothers, sister, and relatives of all types and designs. My wafer, they gave me one, t was about two inches in diameter and on it was deposited a material on which was focused a pattern of circuits much like a photo development process. I think this was repeated many times and the final product was a wafer with millions of transistors forming thousands of integrated circuits, which wouldbe when cut and mounted thelinear amplifier used in some larger assembly. Ow here isthesecret to what a lot is: A computer will, after the circuits are formed and functional, test each one for a specdific set of requirements. The best ones were assigned as a lot and after cutting the wafer went to the military. The next best tested circuits on the same wafer went to the industries requiring a higher standard of IC but a little less performance and acheaaperprice. The next lot was destine for normal electrical commercial applications like radios, TVs and the like where efficiency was less important than price. The last of the wafer that was deemed operational enough to do someting for somebody was designated as alot for the electrroic houses selling to the public. So that one wafer had a lot number but from it was drawn many lots for sale. They were all the same lot becdause one technician did the wafer proccess and all the circuits were the same photo graphic patern, the same light,the same oven time.Everythig wathe same; but it could not be the samebecause all were not equal in performance, cost, or use. So what the program isdoing is checking the response of each case to minute changes in charge weight to see which all bend the same way when the wind blows. I was a Guidance and Control Systems engineer in a very small division of what was then the United Aircraft Systme Center in Farmington Connecticut. I graduated to lat to ber there when they designed, engineered and programmed the guidance system for the LEM Lunar Landing Vehicle. It has been a long time since those days but a lot of patents. Some in my name and some swiped by a poor engineer who wanted a job so bad he took them to a competitor while I was working in England. Well its 2018 and I still look for answers. But now it for myself and my fellow shooters. This is the first in a series of new programs to aid my reloading for minimizing variations in muzzle velocity to the5 to 10 foot per second using cases with a large differences in case weights which have observed in many tests that some cases are very performance represented by having their weights matched to within 0.1 grain but others are not. This program is designed to find the best cases to select for a match of 1000 yards or more. This program is intended to allow an experienced reloader to the perfect charge weight variations to pull vastly different cases into one hole punching machine. It all started with my 308 with a 26 inch barrel and the best scope I thought I had ever seen. It would hit about everything, every time, at 500 meters with my WCC-14 once fired cases after they were totally small base resized, fireformed,and shoulders knocked to the proper uniform headspace, then the necks were resized to a 0.001 press-fit they were wonderful casesI used for my 500 meter work. It was easy to match up a box of 20 whith 0.1 grains a resized neck and headspace set to within 0.001 inch of not fitting at all. The bullets were matched to base to within 0.001 inch. and bullets seated withing 0.005 of jam. It was easy because I had feve hundred cases to sort out the matches. The problem was that it took five hundred cases to get those matched cases and I had four hundred left that did not match. So what do you do to use those other four hundred cases. This program solved that. Is it time to employ a simple, linear approach to determine a propellant charge allocated for each individual case to maintain muzzle velocities within the 5 to 10 fps range with cases of different volumes or weights? If its that time for you, this is the place to be. And its all FREE but there is a BUT. BUT we ask that when you are pleased with the resuts provided by this program and found a powder and C0, A0 and A1 allowing you to use a wider range of cases providing a reduced Standard Deviation in your Muzzle Velocity you will send us a US Postal letter that is a printout of your sucess story. If you do and include your name and city we will publish it for others who might find it a good starting point for their quest. Bue to the nature of the information on the printout my spam filter will not pass it and I will never receive your very important input to fellow long distance shooters. INSTRUCTIONS SAMMI Sez All dimensions shown in drawing are from "ANSI/SAAMI Z299.4 – 2015 American National Standard Voluntary Industry Performance Standards for Pressure and Velocity of Centerfire Rifle Ammunition for the Use of Commercial Manufacturers American National Standards Institute . . ." copies are available on the internet as well as for 22 rim fire, centerfire pistol and other cartridges you may need. You can enlarge the picture on right by clicking on it. I suggest you start with a minimum three new boxes ( 60 not 300) of the cases you are using or will be using. Any less and you will have less of a weight spread to provide for analysis of the correct value of C0 and A0, A1. You should expect to require at least three runs with the suggested charges to narrow in. Fortunately each run requires less cases since you will be weeding out cases that show out of the lot characteristics. A lot number on abox is almost meaningless to a uniformity of product. In the process of selecting ICs for a NASA program I went to Tesxas Instrument in the sixties. A learned a lot about what makes up a lot. I will give the trailer to the big picture of two kinds of lots we may be dealing with two examples. The first example is the most common lot: it is the CYA lot where manufacturer has twenty machines with forty-five operators running 12 hour shiofts. Each machines turn out thirty eight thousand chocolate covered goobers. The machines will operate on one lot number until one of the lots of sugar runs out and is an other lot of sugar but will not change ifone of the operators shuts down a machinw that was adding 8% more of yetty juice than therecipecaledfor. He will adjust or replace a faulty part and the lot goes on. This type of lot is to allow callbacks and recalls if an ingredient was tainted in some matter that would cause a law suite. This also applies to automtive product. But sometimes their lots go across makes and models for months and some times for years. But when a bad component is found the recall can be specific to the dates and models requiring the recall and not the years that the part was in use. just one lot? A long time, maybe fifty years, ago in Dallas I was taken an IC company invited me to see where they produced the Ics I was using in one of my designs. It was like a sifi movie. Engineers and techs covered in white with masks and booties covering their shoes. To enter the place you had to walk through two doors and between the doors you received a complete air shower and put on your white bunny suit so you could enter the rook where you could see the operatiomn through a thick glass window. Inside thatroom were the thin silicone crystal wafers traqnsformed into My Waferthe Integrated circuits we see today in their little gray catapiller packages into wich they went a long way and days down the process. The wafers were covered in alight sensetive slime and placed under an esxtreemly accurate projector which laid out "photographically" the millions of transistor, diodes and resistors into this wafer. This processwas repeated as many times as the specific IC design required.Finally it wasin a special oven and cured with thousands of brothers, sister, and relatives of all types and designs. My wafer, they gave me one, t was about two inches in diameter and on it was deposited a material on which was focused a pattern of circuits much like a photo development process. I think this was repeated many times and the final product was a wafer with millions of transistors forming thousands of integrated circuits, which wouldbe when cut and mounted thelinear amplifier used in some larger assembly. Ow here isthesecret to what a lot is: A computer will, after the circuits are formed and functional, test each one for a specdific set of requirements. The best ones were assigned as a lot and after cutting the wafer went to the military. The next best tested circuits on the same wafer went to the industries requiring a higher standard of IC but a little less performance and acheaaperprice. The next lot was destine for normal electrical commercial applications like radios, TVs and the like where efficiency was less important than price. The last of the wafer that was deemed operational enough to do someting for somebody was designated as alot for the electrroic houses selling to the public. So that one wafer had a lot number but from it was drawn many lots for sale. They were all the same lot becdause one technician did the wafer proccess and all the circuits were the same photo graphic patern, the same light,the same oven time.Everythig wathe same; but it could not be the samebecause all were not equal in performance, cost, or use. So what the program isdoing is checking the response of each case to minute changes in charge weight to see which all bend the same way when the wind blows. First you need a way of permently marking the "Out of the Box" weight of each case so canidentify what charge to usefor each individual case based on the results of this program. I use a Dremel type tool with dental burrs I get free from my dentist. They have some really great diamond burrs that cut brass faster than you can react so you better practice for a while on old pick up brass before your attempt to engrave any new cases. Now set out the cases in order of their weight in 0.1 grain columns. Look at the various places in the row of cases where the number Select your cases by weight starting at the lowest end of the weights and select two cases for the first run. Then select groups of two cases from your case lot spaced about every 0.3 grains apart until you reach the highest weight cases where you will select the last two cases for your first test. If you don't have at least 30 cases. in groups of two cases each you have a very small number of cases to work with and should consider getting more cases to provide you sufficient cases to get a good statistical sample. Fireform the cases using any method you normally use. I use a scoop holding seven to eight grains of Red Dot for my 338 Lapua brass. Less would be appropriate for the non-magnum 30 caliber cases. After the charge fill the cases with Cream of Wheat (COW). NOTE: NEVER USE cornmeal. Some how corn meal makes crusty bread inside the cases which may be impossible to remove. Then shake and pack the cases to insurers shoulders are full of the COW about one half up the neck of the case.topping off the COW as the shaking and packing process works the COW under the case shoulder. Always keep the neck half during the filling process. Finally pack it with a wooden dowel and an soft hammer. Top each case with a wad of tissue paper hammered into the case neck to hold the COW compressed in place. Be careful not to deform the neck. Run the cases through your neck sizing die to besurethey will chamber to insure your hammering did not distort the case necks These can be fired safely into a garbage pail with a few sheets of crumbled up newspaper inside but I only did this once inside. The amount of COW dust took hours to clean off my machine shop took hours. It was even inside my closed tool chests. Outside is better if your neighbors can take the muzzlle blast. It will sound like reall ive ammo going off. Ear protection and goggles along with some kind of cling wrap covering your scope is required for both inside and outside the house. The rifle bore must be cleaned and oiled after this fireforming. what in a lot for me.html;otes